Regulation of peer-to-peer tourist accommodation services: lessons from Asia pacific countries for Sri Lanka
Keywords:sharing economy, peer-to-peer accommodations, Airbnb, regulation, Asia-Pacific, Sri Lanka
AbstractPurpose: The peer-to-peer accommodation industry has expanded tremendously in the previous decade. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the adequacy of existing guidelines and policies in regulating peer-to-peer tourist accommodations driven by Airbnb in Sri Lanka by examining the policies of 16 Asia Pacific cities and countries to see how countries manage differential impacts of Airbnb. Methodology/Approach: A qualitative content analysis of the documents was conducted through Leximancer 5.0 to identify patterns, themes and meanings. Findings: The results revealed nine significant themes that emerged from the content analysis of documents and 18 priority areas were identified to be focused on in introducing regulations and guidelines for peer-to-peer tourist accommodations driven by sharing accommodation platforms. Research Limitation/implication: The findings can contribute to the ongoing regulatory discussion over short-term rentals and have immediate implications for state legislators attempting to regulate the business. In addition, the results will help understand policy trends in the sharing economy and develop the necessary robust policy and legal framework to support and strengthen the sharing economy. Originality/Value of paper: This is the first article investigating the adequacy of existing guidelines and policies in regulating peer-to-peer tourist accommodations driven by Airbnb in Sri Lanka.
Airbnb. (2021). About Us. Airbnb Newsroom. https://news.airbnb.com/about-us/
Airey, D., & Chong, K. (2011). Tourism in China. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203820346
Amaro, S., Andreu, L., & Huang, S. (2018). Millenials’ intentions to book on Airbnb. Current Issues in Tourism. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2018.1448368
Arias Sans, A., & Quaglieri Domínguez, A. (2016). Unravelling Airbnb: Urban Perspecives from Barcelona. Reinventing the Local in Tourism: Producing, Consuming and Negotiating Place, 209–228. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781845415709-015
Biber, E., Light, S. E., Ruhl, J. B., & Salzman, J. (2017). Regulating business innovation as policy disruption: From the model t to airbnb. Vanderbilt Law Review, 70(5), 1561–1626. https://vanderbiltlawreview.org/lawreview/2017/10/regulating-business-innovation-as-policy-disruption-from-the-model-t-to-airbnb/
Brochado, A., Troilo, M., & Shah, A. (2017). Airbnb customer experience: Evidence of convergence across three countries. Annals of Tourism Research, 63, 210–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2017.01.001
Bryman, A., & Burgess, R. (1999). Qualitative Research. SAGE Publications Ltd. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446263150
Burtch, G., Carnahan, S., & Greenwood, B. N. (2018). Can you gig it? an empirical examination of the gig economy and entrepreneurial activity. Management Science, March, 5497–5520. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2017.2916
Cramer, J., & Krueger, A. B. (2016). Disruptive Change in the Taxi Business: The Case of Uber. American Economic Review, 106(5), 177–182. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.p20161002
Curry, D. (2021). Airbnb Revenue and Usage Statistics (2021). Business of Apps. https://www.businessofapps.com/data/airbnb-statistics/
Dann, D., Teubner, T., & Weinhardt, C. (2019). Poster child and guinea pig – insights from a structured literature review on Airbnb. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(1), 427–473. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-03-2018-0186
Dolnicar, S. (2019). A review of research into paid online peer-to-peer accommodation: Launching the Annals of Tourism Research Curated Collection on peer-to-peer accommodation. Annals of Tourism Research, 75, 248–264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2019.02.003
Duuren, E. van, Zee, E. van der, & Hee, V. van. (2017). Airbnb en stedelijk toerisme in Utrecht. Geografie, 26(1), 1–9. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314142320_Airbnb_en_stedelijk_toerisme_in_Utrecht
Edelman, B. G., & Geradin, D. (2015a). Efficiencies and Regulatory Shortcuts: How Should We Regulate Companies like Airbnb and Uber? SSRN, 1–33. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2658603
Edelman, B. G., & Geradin, D. (2015b). Efficiencies and Regulatory Shortcuts: How Should We Regulate Companies like Airbnb and Uber? SSRN Electronic Journal, 293–328. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2658603
Edelman, B., Luca, M., & Svirsky, D. (2017). Racial Discrimination in the Sharing Economy: Evidence from a Field Experiment. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 9(2), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1257/app.20160213
Espinosa, T. P. (2016). The Cost of Sharing and the Common Law: How to Address the Negative Externalities of Home-Sharing. Chapman Law Review, 19(2), 597–627. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lgs&AN=117415506&site=ehost-live
Finck, M., & Ranchordas, S. (2016). Sharing and the City. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2741575
Füller, H., & Michel, B. (2014). “Stop Being a Tourist!” New Dynamics of Urban Tourism in Berlin-Kreuzberg. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(4), 1304–1318. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.12124
Gallagher, L. (2017). The Airbnb Story: How Three Ordinary Guys Disrupted an Industry, Made Billions and Created Plenty of Controversy (1st editio). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Miththapala, S. S., & Tam, S. (2017). Impact of online travel operators on SME accommodation providers in Sigiriya, Habarana, Dambulla-Opinion.
Ellepola, Y. (2017). Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: building momentum in South Asia-Sri Lanka country report.
Gant, A. C. (2015). Tourism and commercial gentrification. International Conference on “The Ideal City: Between Myth and Reality. Representations, Policies, Contradictions and Challenges for Tomorrow’s Urban Life,” 27–29.
Gotham, K. F. (2005). Tourism Gentrification: The Case of New Orleans’ Vieux Carre (French Quarter). Urban Studies, 42(7), 1099–1121. https://doi.org/10.1080/00420980500120881
Gottlieb, C. (2013). Residential Short-Term Rentals: Should Local Governments Regulate the “Industry”? Planning and Environmental Law, 65(2), 4–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/15480755.2013.766496
Grimmer, L., Massey, M., & Vorobjovas-Pinta, O. (2018). Airbnb is blamed for Tasmania’s housing affordability problems, but it’s actually helping small businesses. He Conversation AU. https://theconversation.com/airbnb-is-blamed-for-tasmanias-housing-affordability-problems-but-its-actually-helping-small-businesses-91566
Grimmer, L., Vorobjovas-Pinta, O., & Massey, M. (2019). Regulating, then deregulating Airbnb: The unique case of Tasmania (Australia). Annals of Tourism Research, 75, 304–307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2019.01.012
Gurran, N., & Phibbs, P. (2017). When Tourists Move In: How Should Urban Planners Respond to Airbnb? Journal of the American Planning Association, 83(1), 80–92. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944363.2016.1249011
Guttentag, D. (2015). Airbnb: disruptive innovation and the rise of an informal tourism accommodation sector. Current Issues in Tourism, 18(12), 1192–1217. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2013.827159
Guttentag, D. A., & Smith, S. L. J. (2017). Assessing Airbnb as a disruptive innovation relative to hotelsSubstitution and comparative performance expectations. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 64, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2017.02.003
Han, H. (2021). Consumer behavior and environmental sustainability in tourism and hospitality: A review of theories, concepts, and latest research. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(7), 1021-1042. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2021.1903019
Holm, A. (2016). Berlin: How is Airbnb changing the housing market? A political economy of vacation homes. Gentrification Blog News to Strengthen District Mobilization and Tenant Struggles. https://gentrificationblog.wordpress.com/2016/07/05/berliin-wie-veraendert-airbnb-den-wohnungsmarkt-eine-politische-oekonomie-der-ferienwohnungen/
Holman, N., Mossa, A., & Pani, E. (2018). Planning, value(s) and the market: An analytic for “what comes next?” Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 50(3), 608–626. https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518X17749730
Jefferson-Jones, J. (2015). Airbnb and the Housing Segment of the Modern “Sharing Economy”: Are Short-Term Rental Restrictions an Unconstitutional Taking? Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly, 42(3), 557–575.
Kaplan, R. A., & Nadler, M. L. (2015). Airbnb: A case study in occupancy regulation and taxation. The University of Chicago Law Review Dialogue, 82, 103–115. http://heinonline.org/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/uchidial82§ion=8
Koopman, C., Mitchell, M. D., & Thierer, A. D. (2015a). The Sharing Economy: Issues Facing Platforms, Participants, and Regulators. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2610875
Koopman, C., Mitchell, M., & Thierer, A. (2015b). The Sharing Economy and Consumer Protection Regulation: The Case for Policy Change. The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law, 8(2), 530–540. https://digitalcommons.pepperdine.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1130&context=jbel
Krippendorff, K. (2018). Content Analysis An Introduction to Its Methodology (4th Editio). SAGE Publications, Inc.
Lee, Y.-J. A., Jang, S., & Kim, J. (2020). Tourism clusters and peer-to-peer accommodation. Annals of Tourism Research, 83, 102960. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.102960
Leismann, K., Schmitt, M., Rohn, H., & Baedeker, C. (2013). Collaborative Consumption: Towards a Resource-Saving Consumption Culture. Resources, 2(3), 184–203. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources2030184
Lines, G. E. (2016). Regulating Airbnb in the New Age of Arizona Vacation Rentals. Arizona Law Review, 57, 1163–1182. http://arizonalawreview.org/pdf/57-4/57arizlrev1163.pdf
Maitland, R. (2010). Everyday life as a creative experience in cities. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 4(3), 176–185. https://doi.org/10.1108/17506181011067574
Miller, S. R. (2014). Transferable Sharing Rights: A Theoretical Model for Regulating Airbnb and the Short-Term Rental Market. SSRN Electronic Journal, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2514178
Molly, C., & Arun, S. (2017). Self-Regulation and Innovation in the Peer-to-Peer Sharing Economy. University of Chicago Law Review Online, 82(1 (8)), 1–18. https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1039&context=uclrev_online
Moylan, A. (2016). Roomscore 2016: short-term rental regulation in u.s. cities. 55, 1–12. https://www.rstreet.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/RSTREET55.pdf
Munasinghe, L. M., Gunawardhana, T., Wickramaarachchi, N. C., & Ariyawansa, R. G. (2022a). Digital Micro-entrepreneurship in Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Sector: Evidence from Sri Lanka. Journal of Management and Entrepreneurship Research, 2(2), 119–133. https://doi.org/10.34001/jmer.2021.12.02.2-22
Munasinghe, L. M., Gunawardhana, T., Wickramaarachchi, N. C., & Ariyawansa, R. G. (2022b). Mapping the operation of Airbnb in Sri Lankan cities. Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 18(2), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.17576/geo-2022-1802-01
Nieuwland, S., & van Melik, R. (2020). Regulating Airbnb: how cities deal with perceived negative externalities of short-term rentals. Current Issues in Tourism, 23(7), 811–825. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2018.1504899
O’Sullivan, F. (2018). Barcelona Finds a Way to Control Its Airbnb Market. Bloomberg CityLab. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-06-06/how-barcelona-is-limiting-airbnb-rentals
Oskam, J., & Boswijk, A. (2016). Airbnb: the future of networked hospitality businesses. Journal of Tourism Futures, 2(1), 22–42. https://doi.org/10.1108/JTF-11-2015-0048
Ranchordás, S. (2015). Does sharing mean caring : regulating innovation in the sharing economy Does Sharing Mean Caring ? Regulating Innovation in the Sharing Economy. Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology, 16(1), 413–476. https://scholarship.law.umn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1356&context=mjlst
Rauch, D. E., & Schleicher, D. (2015). Like Uber, But for Local Governmental Policy: The Future of Local Regulation of the “Sharing Economy.” SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2549919
Schor, J. (2016). DEBATING THE SHARING ECONOMY. Journal of Self-Governance and Management Economics, 4(3), 7. https://doi.org/10.22381/JSME4320161
Sheppard, S., & Udell, A. (2016). Do Airbnb properties affect house prices? Working Paper.
Stevenson, H. H. (1983). Perspective on Entrepreneurship. Harvard Business School.
Sundararajan, A. (2014). The Power of Connection: Peer-to-Peer Businesses. In Peer-to-Peer Businesses and the Sharing (Collaborative) Economy: Overview, Economic Effects and Regulatory Issues Arun.
Thierer, A. D., Koopman, C., Hobson, A., & Kuiper, C. (2015). How the Internet, the Sharing Economy, and Reputational Feedback Mechanisms Solve the “Lemons Problem.” SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2610255
Van Holm, E. J. (2020). Evaluating the impact of short-term rental regulations on Airbnb in New Orleans. Cities, 104(March), 102803. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2020.102803
Von der Heidt, T., Muschter, S., Caldicott, R., & Che, D. (2020). Airbnb in the Byron Shire, Australia – bane or blessing? International Journal of Tourism Cities, 6(1), 53–71. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJTC-04-2019-0056
Wang, D., & Nicolau, J. L. (2017). Price determinants of sharing economy based accommodation rental: A study of listings from 33 cities on Airbnb.com. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 62, 120–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2016.12.007
Wegmann, J., & Jiao, J. (2017). Taming Airbnb: Toward guiding principles for local regulation of urban vacation rentals based on empirical results from five US cities. Land Use Policy, 69(May), 494–501. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.09.025
Zervas, G., Proserpio, D., & Byers, J. W. (2017). The Rise of the Sharing Economy: Estimating the Impact of Airbnb on the Hotel Industry. Journal of Marketing Research, 54(5), 687–705. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmr.15.0204
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Produção e Desenvolvimento
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
All content on this work is licensed under a Creative Commons BY Attribution 4.0 Unported license. The articles are free to use, with their CC BY attributions of license.
The journal is not responsible for the opinions, ideas and concepts emitted in the texts, as they are the sole responsibility of its author (s).
The publisher has the right to reject articles that in the evaluation process have been detected signs of plagiarism. The articles that have been detected indications of plagiarism after the publication, will be excluded from the edition. And the indication of the problem will be informed in the place of the text, keeping the same amount of pages.
This journal adopts the principles of ethical conduct of international quality Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), as well as the parameters of Integrity in the Scientific Activity indicated by SCOPUS and SCIELO.